Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

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Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Concept

Every insect does not cause damage.

Pest population beyond certain levels (ETL) only causes damage.

Knocking down pests is not the only and the most appropriate solutionists is not the only and the most appropriate solution.

Why Integrated Pest Management (IPM)?

To promote sustainable agriculture

To protect environment

Soil, Water, Air

To conserve biodiversity (natural predators and friendly insects)

To manage resistance & resurgence in pests & diseases for

 proper pest and disease management

To maintain/ enhance soil fertility

To obtain higher yields and better-quality produce

To minimize the number of sprays

To prevent damage to people’s & animal health by managing pesticide residue problem

To offer product as per the changing attitude of consumers (green label)

Problems of Agriculture in India:

Low productivity

High losses due to pests & diseases

High post-harvest losses

Pesticide residues above tolerance level

Pesticide related Health Problems: Cancer, Neurological Disorders etc.

IPM Global Status:

USA plans to have maximum crops under IPM

Stress on “Organic Farming”

Pesticide residue-A quality marker in WTO

Organophosphates banned

FAO & WHO stopped grants for use of chemical pesticides for control of mosquito etc.

Green label produce has better acceptability and fetches high price

High use of BTs in developed countries

Maximum share of bio-pesticide


IPM in India:

Increase in the consumption of bio-pesticides & bio-control agents

Decrease in chemical pesticide consumption

Poor farmer awareness/ acceptability

Need to develop area/crop specific IPM module

Challenges to Indian Agriculture:

To enhance agricultural production to feed the growing population without degrading: Natural resource base and the environment

To increase productivity per unit of land, water, energy and time & ensuring – No damage to Ecological foundations of Agriculture: Land, water, forests, biodiversity, atmosphere      

Factors conducive to increased pest attacks:

Excessive & untimely use of irrigation water

High use of fertilizer

High use of pesticides

Dense plant populations


Inappropriate cropping system

How -IPM Prevention Indirect Measures


– Avoiding fields with history of diseases, pests, nematodes attacks

– Avoiding / Managing crops, acting as alternate hosts for the major pests

Crop Rotation:

– No monocropping

– Crop rotation with legumes: Cowpea, French Beans, Peas

– Crop rotation of shallow & deep-rooted crops: Onion and capsicum followed by cucurbits

– Rotation of soil building crops with exhaustive crops: Potato followed by cabbage

Selection of Varieties/Hybrids:

– Use of resistance/tolerant varieties

– Use of Area, Crop & Season specific varieties

– Use of varieties with wider genetic base

Crop husbandry and hygiene:

– No crop residues in the field

– Soil solarisation

– Removal of infected plant parts and burying under the ground (covered compost pit in field)

– Avoid use of un-composted harmful waste / improperly decomposed manure as manure

– Avoid use of untreated sewage water for irrigation

– Practice proper weed management


– Increased use of organic manure/composts

– Use of balanced fertilizers in desired doses

– Minimize / avoid use of urea

– Increased use of foliar fertilizers

– Use of protein hydrolysates as fertilizers


– Avoid flat irrigation

– Avoid excessive irrigation

– Practice raised bed/ furrow- ridge cultivation/ irrigation

– No submergence of bed/ridge tops during irrigation

– Use of drip/sprinkler irrigation systems

Insect Net Covering of Nurseries:

Border / Trap Crops

– Marigold (Tomato)

– Maize (Cotton), Cowpea (Cotton)

– Mustard (Cabbage, Cauliflower)

Harvesting and Storage:

– Harvesting at marketable stage

– Isolating of affected produce from the field

– Sorting / grading of produce

– Proper packing and transport

– Proper curing and storage

Observations & Decisions:

Crop monitoring (Nursery/Fields):

– Appearance of pests / diseases: Insects – Pests or Beneficial

– Deciding critical stage of control measures – Pest population: above or below Economic Injury Levels (EIL/ETL)

– Pheromones: Traps – Lures

Intervention – Direct Measures

Cultural and physical control:

– Summer deep ploughing

– Avoid monoculture Optimum plant densities

– Avoid high nitrogenous fertilization

– Avoid excessive irrigation

Biological Control:

– Parasites: Trichogramma

– Predators: Chrysoperla | Spiders | Coccinellids

Use of Bio-pesticides:

– BTs, Beauveria, Metarrhizium, Verticillium&     Nomuraea

– NPV & G.V.

– Trichoderma, Pseudomonas

Use of Botanical pesticides:

– Neem, Karanj, Chillies, Garlic

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